All About Skin

The skin includes the Epidermis (visible skin layers), the Dermis (lower inner layers) and the subcutaneous tissue.Every cell in our body communicates and works harmoniously. In one hour the skin is renewing over 1 million cells.

The Epidermis :

This layer is the protective barrier against infection, mechanical and chemical offenses. It regulates the amount of released water from the body and helps in regulating the temperature.The first layer is thehorny layer, whichplays a vital role as a barrier against all sorts of aggression. This layer is filled with 85 % keratin, lipids, fatty acids and ceramides. Under the horny layer is the pigment factory called Melanocytes.Their function is to produce pigments, which gives the skin its color. The last layer of the Epidermisacts as the Guardian of the skin.The function of these cells is to detect foreign bodies that have penetrated the epidermis, to neutralize and eliminate them

The Dermis
ThisLayer is 10 to 40 times thicker than the epidermis. Itis the lower or inner layer of the two main layers of cells that make up the skin.The dermis contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, hair follicles, and glands that produce sweat, which helps regulate body temperature and sebum(an oily substance that helps keep the skin from becoming dry). Fibroblasts are the main cells in the dermis.
Sweat and sebum reach the skin’s surface through tiny openings in the skin that act as pores.It contains 3 types of tissue

  1. Collagen who gives the skin its strength.
  2. Extracellular matrix(whose job is to capture water in the dermisthrough hyaluronic acid)
  3. Elastin fibers – give the skin its elasticity.

Subcutaneous Tissue
This Layer containsfatcells that make the skin look plump or full and connective tissue that houses larger blood vessels and nerves.

 

Skin types

1. Normal skin
This type of skin has a fine, even and smooth surface due to its ideal balance between oil and moisture content and is therefore neither greasy nor dry. People who have normal skin have small, barely-visible pores. Thus, their skin usually appears clear and does not frequently develop spots and blemishes. This type of skin needs minimal and gentle treatment, but does still require maintenance.

2. Dry skin
Dry skin has a parched appearance and tends to flake easily. It is prone to wrinkles and lines due to its inability to retain moisture, as well as an inadequate production of sebum by sebaceous glands. Dry skin often has problems in cold weather, which dries it out even further. Constant protection in the form of a moisturizer by day and a moisture-rich cream by night is essential. It is important not to over-exfoliate even in cases of extreme flaking, as this only dries out the skin further; gentle exfoliating using sugar, rice bran or mild acids are the most suitable, although they should not be used more frequently than once per week to avoid causing irritation and dryness.

3. Oily skin
As its name implies, this type of skin surface is slightly to moderately greasy, which is caused by the over secretion of sebum. The excess oil on the surface of the skin causes dirt and dust from the environment to adhere to it. Oily skin is usually prone to blackheads, whiteheads, spots and pimples. It needs to be cleansed thoroughly every day, especially in hot or humid weather. Moisturizing with an oil-free, water-based moisturizer is required. Exfoliation is also necessary, but over-exfoliation can cause irritation and increase in oil production; exfoliants that contain fruit acids are particularly helpful, and fine-grained exfoliants may help to clear blocked pores, discouraging breakouts and improving the skin’s appearance.

4. Combination skin
This is the most common type of skin. As the name suggests, it is a combination of both oily and dry or normal skin, where certain areas of the face are oily and the others dry. The oily parts are usually found on a central panel, called the T–Zone, consisting of the forehead, nose and chin. The dry areas usually consist of the cheeks and the areas around the eyes and mouth. In such cases, each part of the face should be treated according to its skin type. There are also skin care products made especially for those who have combination skin; these contain ingredients that cater to both skin types.

5. Sensitive skin
Sensitive skin is a common skin condition that has a tendency to react to many potential triggers with irritation, redness, stinging or burning, flaking, lumpiness, and rashes. Our skin condition changing into sensitive normally causes from our immune system disorders or the changes of our health conditions. The most common causes of irritation are chemical dyes and fragrances, soaps, some flower and spice oils, shaving creams, tanning lotions or spray tans, changes in temperature, excessive cleansing or exfoliating, waxing, threading, shaving, and bleaching. People with sensitive skin should try to avoid products with unnecessary fragrances or dyes, and generally avoid using products that cause irritation. Sensitive skin is typically dry, but can be oily, normal, or combination as well.

6. Acne skin
Acne is a common skin condition that occurs when skin pores become clogged and bacteria settles in, causing the pore to become infected. Several factors can contribute to developing acne such as oily skin, hormones, diet, skin care products and even your skin care routine. If we are changing the lifestyle and diet in our everyday routine, acne is treatable and even prevented with applying the right skin care products.

7. Older skin
The epidermal cells become thinner and less sticky and make the skin look noticeably thinner, which allows moisture to be released instead of being kept in the skin, which makes the skin dry. An older skinrepair cellsslowly. The dermal layer produces less collagen and elastin fibers. This resultsin wrinkling and sagging. While in the subcutaneous layer the fat cells aregetting smaller with age. 90 % of premature aging symptoms are caused by Sunlight exposure.
Healthy Skin has a radiant shine, is elastic and moist with a slightly rosiness that is triggeredby a good blood circulation.
Dermal Generation Inc. goal is to fight the signs of aging. Our organic skin care ingredients will help to rebuild collagen, keratin, elastin, optimizing cellular turnover, protecting and moisturizing, tighten pores.

 

Source:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmetics

http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=2958

http://www.skinscience.com/_int/_en/topic/topic_sousrub.aspx?tc=SKIN_SCIENCE_ROOT^AN_ORGAN_REVEALED^THE_EPIDERMIS